What to do when...
|Abbreviate page to p.||p. 26|
|Abbreviate pages to pp.||pp. 36-38|
|Separate continuous pages with the dash and disparate pages with a comma||pp. 36-38, 42.|
|Paragraph: Abbreviate paragraph/s to para. or paras.||(Author, year, para. 2).|
|Full heading name or section name||(Author, year, Anatomy section).|
|Abbreviated heading or section name in quotation marks i.e. use when the full heading is too long.
Note: use capitalization
|(Author, year, "What Parents" section).|
|A combination of identifiers (e.g. section name & paragraph number)||(Author, year, "Roses" section, para. 2).|
|Audiovisual works (e.g. audiobooks, films, music, TV, YouTube): use the timestamp for the start of the quotations||(Author, year, 11:35).|
There will be times when you need to differentiate entries with the same author and year e.g. you're citing two webpages from the same corporate author and the same publication date. The solution is to add a lowercase letter after the year in both the in-text and reference citations.
Example with no date:
Example with a publication year:
Abbreviations in references from APA (section 9.50 of the APA Publication Manual)
|Rev. ed.||revised edition|
|2nd ed.||second edition|
|Ed. ; Eds.||editor or editors|
|Narr. ; Narrs.||narrator(s)|
|p. ; pp.||page (p. 102) or pages (e.g. pp. 58-59)|
|Vol.; Vols.||volume (e.g. Vol. 4); volumes (e.g. 4 Vols.)|
|Tech. Rep.||technical report|
Location is only included for works with a specific location such as conference presentations. Provide the city, state/province or territory as applicable and the country. The two letter abbreviation is sufficient (APA Publication Manual, section 9.31)
Format description terms from APA (section 9.21 of the APA Publication Manual)
A format description in square brackets is used to clarify the resource type for your reader.
|[Audio podcast] or [Audio podcast episode]||[Policy brief]|
|[Clip art]||[PowerPoint slides]|
|[Conference session]||[Press release]|
|[Facebook page]||[Special issue]|
|[Infographic]||[Speech audio recording]|
|[Lecture notes]||[TV series] or [TV series episode]|
|[Lithograph]||[Tweet] or [Twitter profile]|
|[Map]||[Video] or [Video podcast]|
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