Skip to Main Content

APA Citation Style (7th edition)

More Information on Quoting and Paraphrasing

"They Say/I Say": The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing demystifies academic writing by identifying its key rhetorical moves, the most important of which is to summarize what others have said ("they say") to set up one's own argument ("I say"). The book also provides templates to help students make these key moves in their own writing.

Integrating sources --Signal Phrases

A signal phrase often names the author of the source, gives the publication date in parentheses, and can provide some context in your work.

  • Try one of these signal phrases to help create a smooth transition within your text:
    • As Flynn (2010) claimed  “…” (p. 98).
    • Pappas and Murray (2009) reported “…” (p. 67).
    • Research suggested “…" (Smith, 1999, p. 19).
  • Signal word examples:  admitted, asserted, demonstrated, compared, reasoned, argued, showed that, supported
  • APA requires using verbs in the past tense or present perfect tense (argued or has argued)

Adapted from: Hacker, D. & Sommers, N. (2012). A Canadian writer's reference (5th ed.).

Sample paragraphs

Here's a sample paragraph with in-text citations (bold is for emphasis only; do not do this in your paper).

            In British Columbia, our "carbon tax provides a signal across the economy to reduce emissions while encouraging sustainable economic activity and investment in low-carbon innovation" (Province of British Columbia, n.d., para. 1). How is the price set for each tonne of gas emission? And what are the factors than influence the pricing?

           According to Patel (2011) the theory behind carbon pricing is the assumption that the market will price it fairly. This theory ignores the fact that special interest groups, such as oil companies and known industrial polluters, are vocal in their opposition to governments asking for limits to the impact of carbon taxes. Conflicting scientific opinion and uncertainties about climate change and its possible effect are huge, making the economic argument for strict GHG reductions far from clear (Pindyck, 2013, p. 44).

[page number is considered optional by APA when paraphrasing so the Patel content is shown without a page reference but the Pindyck example includes one - your choice!]


Patel, R. (2011). The value of nothing: How to reshape market society and redefine democracy. Portobello.

Pindyck, R. S. (2013). Pricing carbon when we don't know the right price. Regulation, 36(2), 43-46.

Province of British Columbia. (n.d.). British Columbia's carbon tax.

Plagiarism stop light self check