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APA Citation Style (7th edition)


Basic Journal Article (Sec. 10.01 APA Publication Manual)

  • IMPORTANT! APA requires the DOI as a hyperlink when available. For journal articles without a DOI that come from common library databases do not include a URL or any database information (9.30 APA Publication Manual).
  • In some cases instructors may ask for the library database persistent link instead of the DOI in which case add the persistent link URL in place of the DOI. Camosun database persistent links begin with this prefix: 
  • Please check with your instructor to see which they prefer!


Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (date). Title of journal article: Subtitle information.Title of Journal, volume(issue), page-page. DOI

Reference Example

Oerlemans, W. G. M., & Bakker, A. B. (2018). Motivating job characteristics and happiness at work: A multilevel perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 103(11), 1230-1241.

In-text Example

Parenthetical Citation:
(Oerlemans & Bakker, 2018, p. 379)

Narrative Citation:

Oerlemans and Bakker (2018) report that...

Page numbers are optional for paraphrased content.


Journal Article without a DOI, with a URL, 3 to 20 authors (Sec. 9.34 APA Publication Manual)

  • If the article does not have a DOI and does not come from a library database use the URL.
  • Check with your instructor to confirm they will accept a database link e.g. permalink, persistent link, etc.
  • For articles with 2 to 20 authors list all authors in the reference citation and use an ampersand (&) before the last author's name (9.8 APA Publication Manual).
  • For 3 or more authors include the name of only the first author plus "et al." in the in-text citation (8.17 APA Publication Manual).

Reference Examples

Argent, A.,  Vintimilla, C. D., Lee, C., & Wapenaar, K. (2017). A dialogue about place and living pedagogies: Trees, ferns, blood, children, educators and wood cutters. Journal of Childhoods and Pedagogies, 1(2), 1-21.

McGuigan, C. (2019). Design to the music of our time: Frank Gehry at 90 talks about his early days, what matters now, and the secret to a long life. Architectural Record, 207(3), 42-46.  [in the absence of a DOI, check with your instructor to confirm they will accept the database link rather than an open web URL]

In-text Example

Parenthetical Citation:
(Argent et al., 2017)

(McGuigan, 2019).


Journal Article with a DOI, 21 or more authors (Sec. 9.8 APA Publication Manual)

  • For 21 or more authors, include the first 19 author names followed by an ellipsis (three dots ...) but no ampersand (&) and then add the final author's name.
  • For 21 or more authors, list only first author in the in-text citation followed by "et al." (8.17 APA Publication Manual)

Reference Example

Wolfenden, L., Bolsewicz, K., Grady, A., McCrab, S., Kingsland, M., Wiggers, J., Bauman, A., Wyse, R., Nathan, N., Sytherland, R., Hodder, R. K., Fernandez, M., Lewis, C., Taylor, N., McKay, H., Grimshaw, J., Hall, A., Moulin, J., Albers, B.,...Yoong, S. L. (2019). Optimisation: Defining and exploring a concept to enhance the impact of public health initiatives. Health Research Policy and Systems, 17(108), 1-13. 

In-text Example

Parenthetical Citation:
(Wolfenden et al., 2019)


Print Journal Article without a DOI (Sec. 9.34 APA Publication Manual)

  • If a print journal article does not have a DOI leave it blank.
  • References for electronic journal articles without a DOI from common library databases will look the same as a reference for print version of the article with no DOI or URL.

Reference Example

Anderson, M. (2018). Getting consistent with consequences. Educational Leadership, 76(1), 26-33.

In-text Example

(Anderson, 2018)


Article from an archival database such as JSTOR or ERIC (Sec. 9.30 & 9.34, APA Publication Manual)

  • Generally, it is not necessary to include the information about which database your article is from. An exception is made for primary resources, or resources with limited circulation unique to databases such as JSTOR or ERIC. In these cases provide the document number if applicable, the name of the database and the URL of the database homepage. The retrieval date is not necessary unless you think the content is meant to be changed or updated.