A quotation is a collection spoken or written words repeated in speech or text by someone other than the original speaker or author. Quoting the work and ideas of others in your assignments helps to demonstrate that you have undertaken some scholarly research as well as helps establish credibility for your topic or position. In order to avoid plagiarism, you must acknowledge all the resources (oral, print, and electronic) that you used in your research.
A quotation of four or less lines should be cited within quotation marks (appearing at the beginning and end of the quote). The end punctuation of the quotation (e.g., period, question mark, exclamation mark) should be contained within the quotation marks. The footnote should be inserted after the closing quotation mark.
Quotations of five or more lines should be put into “blocked” formatting. Blocked quotations require no quotation marks; however, to properly format the quotation you need to:
Signal phrases are ways to lead into or introduce a source or quote.
When introducing your sources, Chicago style uses verbs in the present tense (for details, see sec. 5.129 of The Chicago Manual of Style. 17th ed. and Chicago Style Q & A).
A signal phrase often names the author of the source and provides context. Include:
Examples of Signal Phrases
Try one of these signal phrases to create a smooth transition in your text:
Other signal words include:
This information on signal phrases has been adapted from:
Hacker, Diana, and Nancy Sommers. A Canadian Writer's Reference. 5th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2012.
When writing an academic paper, you must acknowledge all the resources (oral, print, or web) that you used in your research. Not only does this allow your instructor to locate the sources you mention, it prevents you from being accused of plagiarism. In most instances, plagiarism is unintentional; it can be confusing to know what to cite. In general, it is better to be safe than sorry.
If yes, then you need to quote the source and provide a page number in your in-text citation. You must give them credit.
If yes, then you still must provide citation information. In Chicago and MLA styles you must provide a page number. In APA, you don't have to provide page numbers though it is recommended.
No, you do not need to cite information that is considered "common knowledge."
Absolutely. Just because it is easy to do, doesn't make it right. Cite the source!
No, it is not. Even government information must be cited.