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IEEE Citation Style

Information for web based sources

Below is a guide to what information you may need to record when citing an electronic document:

  • name of author(s) if given
  • year or date of publication (or date site was created or updated)
  • title of document
  • number or title of Figure
  • title of web site or database
  • pages, sections or paragraphs (if given)
  • date you accessed the site
  • database name (if appropriate)
  • internet link (URL, DOI or database permalink)


Electronic document 
[1] European Telecommunications Standards Institute, “Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB): Implementation guidelines for DVB terrestrial services; transmission aspects,” European Telecommunications Standards Institute, ETSI TR-101-190, 1997. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: Aug. 17, 1998].

Electronic document: no author
[2] “A ‘layman’s’ explanation of Ultra Narrow Band technology,” Oct. 3, 2003. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: Dec. 3, 2003].

Government publication: Australian Bureau of Statistics document
[3] Australian Bureau of Statistics, Engineering Construction Activity (cat. no. 8762.0). Canberra: ABS, 2010. [Online]. Available from AusStats, [Accessed: Sept. 7, 2010].

Government publication: Government department
[4] Australia. Department of of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, Survey on Changes in Awareness and Understanding of Science, Engineering and Technology: Report on findings. Canberra: The Department; 2008. [Online]. Available:
.pdf. [Accessed: Sept. 7, 2010].

Personal Internet site
[5] G. Sussman, "Home page - Dr. Gerald Sussman," July 2002. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: Sept. 12, 2004].

General Internet site
[6] J. Geralds, "Sega Ends Production of Dreamcast,", para. 2, Jan. 31, 2001. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: Sept. 12, 2004].

Blog entry
[7] J. A. Specavek, "Fracking and the Stresses it Adds to Railroads," It's the Rheo Thing, May 18, 2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: Jun. 9, 2015].

AI-generated content

It is highly recommended that you confirm with your instructor what is permitted for a specific assignment prior to using an AI tool such as Chat GPT. Some instructors and/or the nature of some assignments will not permit the use of ChatGPT or other generative Artificial Intelligence (AI) tools.

There is no formal guidance regarding how to reference AI-generated content in IEEE referencing style. Until formal advice is available use the Unpublished Material / Private Communication format.

  • As the private communication may not provide recoverable data, the private communication may be cited in-text only. 
  • If citing your private communication in-text only, provide the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, along with as exact date of communication as possible.

In-text example:

Modern research tools lead to better results (OpenAI's ChatGPT, private communication, 10 March 2023).

Reference list:

You do not need to include an entry in the reference list.