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MLA Style (8th/9th Ed.)

Core Elements Format

The MLA 8th ed. does not provide rules for citing specific types of resources.  They provide a universal set of guidelines for any type of material based based on the core elements. MLA allows the writer to emphasize the focus of particular people responsible for a work.  "If your discussion of such a work focuses on the contribution of a particular person - say, the performance of an actor or the ideas of the screenwriter - begin the entry with his or her name, followed by a descriptive label." (MLA Handbook, 8th ed., p. 24)

Streaming Video (via library database)


"Title of Film." Title of Production Company/Publisher, Publication Date. Title of Database, URL.


"Core Off the Floor!" Healthy Learning, 2008, Alexander Street,[0]=asp_tertiary_community_facet%3APhysical%20Therapy.

In Text: ("Long Shadow" 00:17:44-58)

"For works in time-based media, such as audio and video recordings, cite the relevant time or range of times.  Give the numbers of the hours, minutes, and seconds as displayed in your media player, separating the numbers with colons." (MLA 8th edition, p. 57)

Streaming Video From a Website, YouTube etc.


Author's Last Name, First Name or Username if real name not provided. "Title of Video." Title of Website, Publication Date, URL.


Griggs, Ben. "A Day in the Life of a Librarian." YouTube, 1 Oct. 2013,

In Text:(Griggs 00:02:26-27)

EXAMPLE when discussing a series in general

Daniels, Greg and Michael Schur, creators. Parks and Recreation, Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2015.

EXAMPLE when discussing a specific episode in series

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, season 2, episode 21, NBC, 29 Apr. 2010. Netflix,

Film, DVD, Video


Title of Film. Directed by Director's First Name Last Name. Performance(s) by Actor(s) Name(s). Title of Production Company, Release Date.

EXAMPLE To emphasize the performance of an actor:

The Grand Budapest Hotel, Directed by Wes Anderson. Performance by Ralph Fiennes. Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment, 2014.

In Text: (Grand Budapest 01:18:29-49)

EXAMPLE 2 film citation to emphasize the director:

Moore, Michael, director. Bowling for Columbine, Alliance Atlantis, 2003. 



Creator/Host's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Podcast Episode." Title of Podcast Series, Episode Number if Given, Publisher of the Website if Different From Podcast Title, Publication Date of Episode, URL.


Kennedy, Paul. "Hope Within Horror: Marina Nemat." Ideas, CBC/Radio-Canada, 6 Dec. 2016, hope-within-horror-marina- nemat-1.3470823.

In Text (Kennedy 00:14:11-47)

Music - Sound Recordings


Artist's Last Name, First Name or Band Name. Title of Album. Publisher of Recording, Publication Date.


Tragically Hip. Road Apples, MCA Records, 1991.

Song on a CD EXAMPLE

Cohen, Leonard. "Jazz Police." I'm Your Man, Columbia, 1988.

If you want to emphasize the particular work of a performer, song writer, composer etc., add it after the Title of Album.

Live Performance


Performer's Last Name, First Name or Band Name. "Title of song, monolog, poem or tour name." Version, Venue / Location. Live performance.

EXAMPLE (with band name)

Arkells. PullingPunches, 1 July, 2017, BC Legislature Lawn, Victoria BC. Live performance.

In Text: (Arkells)

NOTE in the above example the date is the Version element, publisher has been left out, and the venue is the lawn of the BC Legislature.

Photograph (Web)


Last Name, First Name of photographer. "Title of Image/Photograph." Title of Website, Publication Date, URL. Date Accessed.


Dobbs, Charles. "Zabriskie Point Sunset." FineArtAmerica, 7 Apr. 2016, Accessed 16 Dec. 2016.

In Text: (Dobbs)

Online art (reproduction on web)


Artist/Creator. Title of work. Date created. Name of Museum/Gallery, Container(database name). Location.

EXAMPLE Image from a library database

Currin, John. Blond Angel. 2001. Indianapolis Museum of Art. IMA: It’s My Art.

In text: (Currin)

Artwork in Gallery, or public location.


Creator's Last Name, First Name or Initial (if available). Title of Work. Publication Date, Location.


Potter-Mäl, Brigitte. Another Harvest, 1994, Camosun College, Wilna Thomas Building WT103.

In Text: (Potter-Mäl)

NOTE Location could be Name of Gallery or name of gallery + city. If the name of the city is in the name of the gallery you do not have to repeat that information.