Supplemental Elements: a description of an unusual or unexpected aspect of a source type, placed after the Title of Source or after Location. This depends on if the specific element applies only to the Author or Title element, to the entire container.
Date of access, Date of original publication, City of publication, Series name, and Information on prior publication.
In-text citation, also called parenthetical citations (because they are wrapped in parentheses) should follow as closely as possible the quote or paraphrase in your writing.
If you mention the author's name in your writing do not include it in the in-text citation, only provide the page number. Eg: (194)
If you do not mention the author you must include their last name and the page numbers. Eg: (Baron 194)
If quoting more than one work by the same author you must add a short form of the title to help your reader understand which source you are referring to. Note the punctuation: (Baron, "Redefining" 194)
More than one author with the same last name? Include that author's first initial: (L. Baron 194)
Corporate author or Anonymous? Use as shortened version of the title because this is how the source is listed in your works-cited/reference list.
The title of a book should be in italics:
Villoldo, Alberto. Illumination: The Shaman's Way of Healing. Hay House, 2010.
Title of a web page from a website should be in quotation marks:
"Drugged Driving by the Numbers." MADD, 2015, www.madd.org/
drugged-driving/drugged-driving-by-the.html. Accessed 18 June 2016.
The title of article from a journal/magazine/newspaper should be in quotation marks:
Conatser, Phillip, and Martin Block. "Aquatic Instructors' Beliefs Toward Inclusion."
Therapeutic Recreation Journal, vol. 35, no. 2, 2001, pp. 170-184.
The title of an essay/chapter/short story etc from an anthology should be in quotation marks:
Brant, Beth. “Coyote Learns a New Trick.” An Anthology of Canadian Native
Literature in English, edited by Daniel David Moses and Terry Goldie,
Oxford UP, 1992, pp. 148-150.
Abbreviate a title if it is longer than a few words. If it starts with a noun phrase shorten it to only the noun phrase. Eg: Faulkner's Southern Novels - is a noun phrase so the entire title would appear in your in-text citation. Faulkner's Novels of the South - should be shortened to Faulkner's Novels. A quote from page 23 of the book Under the Volcano would appear as (Under 23) in the text of your paper.
Use the established abbreviations for the works of Shakespeare and the Bible found on pages 96 - 101 in the MLA Handbook.
If there is no author start in-text citation with the word used to alphabetize it in the works cited list. This may be a shortened version of the title, or a description of a source. It must match the entry in the citation list.(pp.117 -118) Eg: (Gif of Meryl Streep)
Williams, George R. "What Can Consciousness Anomalies Tell Us about Quantum Mechanics?" vol.30, ibsecure.camosun.bc.ca:2443/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=118525144&site=eds-live.
NOTE:are for learning and illustration only. Do not use this formatting in your citations.
Paz, Octavio. In Light of India. Eliot Weinberger,
If the source has a version or edition, include this in your citation. Books are commonly published in versions called editions. They may be published as revised edition, 2nd edition, expanded edition etc. Audiovisual material may also appear in versions such as unabridged version or director's cut. Abbreviate edition to ed. and revised to rev.
This element ends with a comma.
Lutgens, Frederick K., and Edward J. Tarbuck. The Atmosphere: An