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APA Citation Style (7th edition)

Audiovisual Materials

Film,YouTube, Music, podcasts  (Sec. 10.12, 84-90 APA Publication Manual, 7th ed.)

Audiovisual media may have both visual and audio components (e.g., films, TV shows, YouTube videos; see Section 10.12), audio components only (e.g., music, speech recordings; see Section 10.13), or visual components only (e.g., artwork, PowerPoint slides, photographs; see Section 10.14). All of these categories follow the same formats, so the guidance is presented together here.

The formats for audiovisual references follow a pattern based on whether the work stands alone (e.g., films, whole TV series, podcasts, webinars, music albums, artwork, YouTube videos) or is part of a greater whole (e.g., TV series episodes, podcast episodes, songs from a music album). The author of an audiovisual work is determined by media type, as shown next:

Media type: Include as the author:
Film Director
TV series Executive producer(s)
TV series episode Writer & director of episode
Podcast Host or executive producer
Podcast episode Host of episode
Webinar Instructor
Online streaming video Person or group who uploaded the video
Classical music album or song Composer
Modern music album or song Recording artist
Artwork Artist
Photograph Photographer

 

Describe the audiovisual work in square brackets—for example, “[Film],” “[TV series],” “[Audio podcast episode],” “[Song],” “[Painting],” and so forth in the title element of the reference. In the source(publisher) element of the reference, provide the name of the production company for films, TV series, or podcasts; the label for music albums; the museum name and location for artwork; or the name of the streaming video site that hosts a streaming video.


To cite a direct quotation from an audiovisual work (e.g., from a film), see Section 8.28; for interviews, see Section 8.7. If you want to reproduce an audiovisual work (e.g., a photograph or clip art) rather than just cite it, you may need to seek permission from the copyright owner and/or provide a copyright attribution per the terms of the image license (see Section 12.15 for more).

 Use the template shown below to construct references for audiovisual media that stand alone.

Author Date Title Publisher URL

 Director, D. D. (Director).

 Producer, P. P. (Executive Producer).

 Host, H. H. (Host)

 Artist, A. A.

 Composer, C.C.

 Recording Artist, R.R.

Uploader, U. U.

 (2020).

 (1989–present).

 (2013–2019).

 (2019, July 21).

 (n.d.)

 Title of work [Description].

 Production Company.

 Label.

 Museum Name,

 Museum Location.

 Department Name,

 University Name.

https://xxxx

Use the template shown below to construct references for audiovisual media that are part of a greater whole

Author Date Title Publisher URL

Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Director, D. D. (Director).

Host, H. H. (Host).

Producer, P. P. (Producer).

Composer, C. C.

Artist, A. A.

 (2020).

 (2020, March 26).

 (n,d.)

Title of episode (Season No., Episode No.) [Description].

Title of song [Description].

 In P. P. Producer (Executive Producer),   Title of TV series. Production Company.

 In Title of podcast. Production   Company.

 On Title of album. Label.

https://xxxx

Music, Podcasts

Music album (10.13, #91 APA Publication Manual 7th ed., p 344)

  • Provide the name of the recording artist or group as author.
  • For a recording of classical work, provide composer as author and add recording artist or group to the description.  Provide publication date for version used and add original composition date in brackets at end of reference.
  • It is not usually necessary to specify how you listened to an album (e.g. iTunes, Spotify), however if you need to include descriptive information to distinguish the version you can add this after the word Album and a semicolon.
  • If the album is only retrievable from one online location (such as SoundCloud) include the URL in the reference.
Format

Recording Artist, A. A. or Group. (date of recording). Title of album [Description]. Recording Label.

Composer, A.A. (date of recording). Title of recording [Description and Recording Artist]. Recording Label. (Original date of publishing if not original)

Reference Example

Kozeluch, L. (2017). Piano concerto no. 1 in F major; Piano concerto no. 5 in E flat major; Piano concerto no. 6 in C major [Album recorded by London Mozart Players]. Hyperion. (Original work published 1784–1786).

Broken Social Scene. (2017). Hug of Thunder [Album]. Arts & Crafts.

In-text Example

(Kozeluch, 2017) 

(Broken Social Scene, 2017)

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Music: single song or track (10.13, #92 APA Publication Manual 7th ed., p 345)

  • If a song does not have an associated album, omit the album reference.
  • If a song is retrievable from an online location (such as SoundCloud) include the URL in the reference.
Format

Recording Artist, A. A. or Group. (date of recording). Title of song [Description]. On Title of album. Recording Label. URL

Reference Example

Lamar, K. (2017). Humble [Song]. On Damn. Aftermath Entertainment; Interscope Records; Top Dawg Entertainment.

The Awkwards (2019). Down in the garden [Song]. SoundCloud. https://soundcloud.com/user-393150399/the-awkwards-down-in-the-garden

In-text Example

(Lamar, 2017) 

(The Awkwards, 2019)

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Podcast series (10.13, #93 APA Publication Manual 7th ed., p 345)

  • List podcast host as author or executive producer if known and include role in parentheses.
  • Specify type of podcast in square brackets (audio or video).
  • If URL unknown (i.e. via app) exclude URL.
Format

Host, H. H. (Host). (date includes all years of podcast run). Title of podcast [Description]. Production Company. URL

Reference Example

Barbaro, M. (Host). (2017-present). The Daily [Audio podcast]. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/11/04/podcasts/the-daily

In-text Example

(Barbaro, 2017-present) 

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Podcast episode (10.13, #94 APA Publication Manual 7th ed., p 345)

  • List podcast host as author and include role in brackets.
  • Include podcast episode number in parentheses after title if available. If not available leave out.
  • Specify type of podcast in square brackets (audio or video).
  • If URL unknown (i.e. via app) exclude URL.
Format

Host, H. H. (Host). (date of original broadcast). Title of episode (Season No., Episode No.) [Description]. In Title of podcast series. Production Company. URL

Reference Example

Judge, P. (Host). (2020, April 17). Starlight tours (No. 138) [Audio podcast episode]. In Criminal. Radiotopia. https://thisiscriminal.com/episode-138-starlight-tours-4-17-2020

In-text Example

(Judge, 2020) 

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Film, DVD, YouTube, Streaming video, webinars

Film or DVD  (10.12, #84 APA Publication Manual 7th ed., p 342)

  • It is not necessary to specify how you watched a film (e.g.,in theatre, on DVD, streaming online). However, the format or other descriptive information may be included--within the square brackets following the word "Film" and a semi-colon--when you need to specify the version used.
Format

Director, D. D. (Director). (date). Title [Format]. Production Company. Label.

Reference Example

Scott, R. (Director). (2000). Gladiator [Film: Director's Cut]. Scott Free Productions. Red Wagon Entertainment.

In-text Example

(Scott, 2000) 

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TV Series (entire series) (10.12, #86 APA Publication Manual 7th ed., p 343)

  • It is not necessary to specify how you watched a film (e.g.,in theatre, on DVD, streaming online). However, the format or other descriptive information may be included--within the square brackets following the word "Film" and a semi-colon--when you need to specify the version used.
Format

Producer, P. P. (Executive Producer). (date includes all years of series run). Title [Format]. Production Company. Label.

Reference Example

Bradley, E., Sapot, A., Catto, S., Hayward, D., Owen, A., De Pencier, M., Walley-Beckett, M. & Girotti, K. (Executive Producers). (2017-2019). Anne with an E [TV Series]. Northwood Anne, Northwood Entertainment, & Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC).

In-text Example

(Bradley et al., 2017-2019) 

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TV Series (individual episode or webisode) (10.12, #87 APA Publication Manual 7th ed., p 342)

  • Include writer(s) and the director for the episode and include the contributor roles in parentheses after each contributor name.  Roles could include Writer, Director or Executive Director.
  • Provide the season number and episode number after the title in parentheses.
Format

Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (date of original broadcast). Title of episode (Season No., Episode No.) [Description]. In P.P. Producer (Executive Producer), Title of TV Series. Production Company.

Reference Example

Mazin, C., (Writer) & Renck, J. (Director). (2019, May 13). Please remain calm (Season 1, Episode 2) [TV Series]. In S. Wohlenberg (Executive Producer), Chernobyl. HBO & Sky TV.

In-text Example

(Mazin, 2019) 

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YouTube or other streaming service (10.12, #88, #90 APA Publication Manual 7th ed., p 343-344)

  • The person or group who uploaded the video is credited as the author for retrievability, even if they did not create the work. Include contributions of others who appear in the video in text narrative if desired (10.12, #88, p.343)
Format

Author, A. A. [screen name if applicable]. (Year, Month day of posting). Title [Video]. Platform. URL. 

Reference Example

Fogarty, M. [Grammar Girl]. (2019, September 9). Verbing nouns; 'It Is I' or 'It Is Me'? [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hY3cJ6609QM

In-text Example

If you used an exact quote from a video or YouTube video, include a timestamp in your in-text citation (8.28, p.274).

(Fogarty, 2012, 2:05) 

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